e-book The plant endoplasmic reticulum

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Articles

  1. The endoplasmic reticulum: A dynamic and well‐connected organelle
  2. The plant endoplasmic reticulum: a cell-wide web.
  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum: Structure and Function
  4. Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum
  5. Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum: A dynamic and well‐connected organelle

The protein is wrongly folded as a result of receiving an altered genetic message. The required protein is never exported from the lumen of rough ER.


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Rigorous quality control plays a part in cystic fibrosis A form of cystic fibrosis is caused by a missing single amino acid, phenylanaline, in a particular position in the protein construction. The protein might work well without the amino acid but the very exacting service provided by the quality control section spots the error and rejects the protein retaining it in the lumen of the rough ER.

In this case the customer the person with cystic fibrosis loses out completely due to high standards when a slightly poorer product would have been better than no product at all.

Two Kinds of ER

They are conveyed in vesicles or possibly directly between the ER and Golgi surfaces. It is found fairly evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm.

The plant endoplasmic reticulum: a cell-wide web.

Smooth ER is devoted almost exclusively to the manufacture of lipids and in some cases to the metabolism of them and associated products. In liver cells for example smooth ER enables glycogen that is stored as granules on the external surface of smooth ER to be broken down to glucose. Smooth ER is also involved in the production of steroid hormones in the adrenal cortex and endocrine glands.

Smooth ER — the detox stop Smooth ER also plays a large part in detoxifying a number of organic chemicals converting them to safer water-soluble products.


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Large amounts of smooth ER are found in liver cells where one of its main functions is to detoxify products of natural metabolism and to endeavour to detoxify overloads of ethanol derived from excess alcoholic drinking and also barbiturates from drug overdose. To assist with this, smooth ER can double its surface area within a few days, returning to its normal size when the assault has subsided. The contraction of muscle cells is triggered by the orderly release of calcium ions. These ions are released from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoskeleton — the movers and shapers in the cell.

Endoplasmic Reticulum: Structure and Function

Aside from that, the ER is responsible in moving proteins and other carbohydrates into the Golgi apparatus, the lysosomes, to eh plasma membrane, or anywhere that they are needed. This means that the endoplasmic reticulum is a series of intracytoplasmic, membrane bounded sacs that are interconnected. There are basically two types of ER: the rough endoplasmic reticulum which is primarily covered with ribosomes and the smooth, which is not. The function of the rough is to synthesize proteins while the smooth is the site wherein the vesicles that carries the newly synthesized proteins from the rough ER are bounded off.

Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

The main function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is to conduct numerous vital metabolic functions within the cell. A great proportion of the food consumed on the planet in terms of proteins and carbohydrates is manufactured and processed in the organelles of the secretory pathway.

Likewise the pathway is responsible for the production of much of the plant extracellular matrix wall material which is important in numerous industries wood, paper etc and more recently in biofuel production both in terms of oils and carbohydrates for fermentation. Therefore, any research underpinning our knowledge of the function of the endoplasmic reticulum ER has great potential benefit to the development of strategies to manipulate or increase protein productivity in plants.

Also the ER is the site of synthesis of many of the economically important molecules that are in development, through plant expression, by the biotechnology sector. Antibodies, peptide antigens and protein based therapeutics being good examples.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

In the long term beneficiaries of this work will include the agricultural sector, through enhanced food production, the biotechnology and health sector through the production of economically valuable molecules and the biofuels sector through oil production in the ER. All partner institutions have active technology transfer offices. Therefore, in the event of any exploitable intellectual property emerging from the projects we are well placed for exploitation.

Publications The following are buttons which change the sort order, pressing the active button will toggle the sort order Author Name descending press to sort ascending. Breeze E A C-terminal amphipathic helix is necessary for the in vivo tubule-shaping function of a plant reticulon.


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  8. Hawes C The endoplasmic reticulum: a dynamic and well-connected organelle. Kittelmann M Serial block face scanning electron microscopy and the reconstruction of plant cell membrane systems.